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Is infertility a common problem?
Yes. About 10 percent of women (6.1 million) in the United States ages 15-44 have difficulty getting pregnant or staying pregnant, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Is infertility just a woman's problem?
No, infertility is not always a woman's problem. Both women and men can have problems that cause infertility. About one-third of infertility cases are caused by women's problems. Another one third of fertility problems are due to the man. The other cases are caused by a mixture of male and female problems or by unknown problems.
What causes infertility in men?
Infertility in men is most often caused by:
· A problem called varicocele (VAIR-ih-koh-seel). This happens when the veins on a man's testicle(s) are too large. This heats the testicles. The heat can affect the number or shape of the sperm.
· Other factors that cause a man to make too few sperm or none at all.
· Movement of the sperm. This may be caused by the shape of the sperm. Sometimes injuries or other damage to the reproductive system block the sperm.
Sometimes a man is born with the problems that affect his sperm. Other times problems start later in life due to illness or injury. For example, cystic fibrosis often causes infertility in men.
What increases a man's risk of infertility?
A man's sperm can be changed by his overall health and lifestyle. Some things that may reduce the health or number of sperm include:
· Heavy alcohol use
· Environmental toxins, including pesticides and lead
· Smoking cigarettes
· Health problems such as mumps, serious conditions like kidney disease, or hormonal problems
· Radiation treatment and chemotherapy for cancer
What is intrauterine insemination (IUI)?
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an infertility treatment that is often called artificial insemination. In this procedure, the woman is injected with specially prepared sperm. Sometimes the woman is also treated with medicines that stimulate ovulation before IUI.
IUI is often used to treat:
1. Mild male factor infertility
2. Women who have problems with their cervical mucus
3.Couples with unexplained infertility
What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)?
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a group of different methods used to help infertile couples. ART works by removing eggs from a woman's body. The eggs are then mixed with sperm to make embryos. The embryos are then put back in the woman's body.
How often is assisted reproductive technology (ART) successful? Success rates vary and depend on many factors. Some things that affect the success rate of ART include:
1. Age of the partners
2 Reason for infertility
4. Type of ART
5. If the egg is fresh or frozen
6. If the embryo is fresh or frozen
The U.S. Centers for Disease Prevention (CDC) collects success rates on ART for some fertility clinics. According to the 2006 CDC report on ART, the average percentage of ART cycles that led to a live birth were:
39% in women under the age of 35
30% in women aged 35-37
21% in women aged 37-40
11% in women aged 41-42 ART can be expensive and time-consuming. But it has allowed many couples to have children that otherwise would not have been conceived. The most common complication of ART is multiple fetuses. But this is a problem that can be prevented or minimized in several different ways.
What is Surrogacy?
Women with no eggs or unhealthy eggs might also want to consider surrogacy. A surrogate is a woman who agrees to become pregnant using the man's sperm and her own egg. The child will be genetically related to the surrogate and the male partner. After birth, the surrogate will give up the baby for adoption by the parents.
How Gestational Carrier work?
Women with ovaries but no uterus may be able to use a gestational carrier. This may also be an option for women who shouldn't become pregnant because of a serious health problem. In this case, a woman uses her own egg. It is fertilized by the man's sperm and the embryo is placed inside the carrier's uterus. The carrier will not be related to the baby and gives him or her to the parents at birth. Recent research by the Centers for Disease Control showed that ART babies are two to four times more likely to have certain kinds of birth defects. These may include heart and digestive system problems, and cleft (divided into two pieces) lips or palate. Researchers don't know why this happens. The birth defects may not be due to the technology. Other factors, like the age of the parents, may be involved. More research is needed. The risk is relatively low, but parents should consider this when making the decision to use ART.
Is Surrogacy Legal In India?
Commercial surrogacy has been legal in India since 2002. India is emerging as a leader in international surrogacy. Indian surrogates have been increasingly popular with fertile couples in industrialized nations because of the relatively low cost. Indian clinics are at the same time becoming more competitive, not just in the pricing, but in the hiring and retention of Indian females as surrogates. Clinics charge patients between $25,000 to $30,000 for the complete package, including fertilization, the surrogate's fee, and delivery of the baby at a hospital.Surrogacy in India is much more simpler and cost effective than anywhere else in the world. There is an increasing amount of Intended Parents who choose India as their surrogacy destination. The main reason for this increase is the less costlier surrogacy and better flexible laws. In2008, the Supreme Court of India has held that commercial surrogacy is permitted in India. That has again increased the international confidence in going in for surrogacy in India.
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